Obfuscated & Bizarre

(07.03.95) One of the chief attractions of ``C'' is its potiential for obfuscation and utter reduction of program size. Today, the results of the shortest C contest (SHOCC) were finally mailed to the contestants. I am somewhat proud to be the winner of the 1st price for "most obfuscated solution". (I didn't really try for the shortest solution, since too many hints had been posted to the relevant newsgroups, and one had to buy some program size reduction with horribly incompatible hacks (esp., using int* instead of char** for argv). In contrast, my obfuscated solution is quite standard-conforming! (it only assumes that argv[0] contains a legal program name that system() can invoke. (And there is this teeny issue of writing over the end of a string. (And the implicit declaration of "v".))))
(11.08.95) Perl surely lends itself to obfuscation. Randal L. Schwartz's Perl Columns are a nice little introction.


(29.04.95) Das Institut für deutsche Sprache in Mannheim. Noch nicht sehr viel Material, aber es wächst.
(27.08.95) The Editorial Eye is ``is a resource for writers, editors, designers, project managers, communications specialists, and everyone else who cares about excellence in publishing practices.''

Thesite offers some interesting editorials on questions of English style and usage.

(10.04.95) Weekly Idiom
(28.12.95) (28.12.95)1English Grammar FAQ fromJohn Lawler.
The Human-Languages Page is devoted to bringing together information about the languages of the world. The language resources listed here come from all around the world, and range from dictionaries to language tutorials to spoken samples of languages. (turn off the graphics before following that link)
Lingsoft presents:

    Seven *Free* Linguistic Demos at URL:

        * ENGCG:    Constraint Grammar Parser of English
        * ENGTWOL:  English morphological analyser
        * FINHYP9:  Finnish hyphenation
        * FINSTEMS: Finnish search stems
        * FINTWOL:  Finnish morphological analyser
        * GERTWOL:  German morphological analyser
        * SWETWOL:  Swedish morphological analyser


(10.07.95) Chris Bogart's page on Constructed Human Languages
(24.06.95) Esperanto Hypercourse. The vocabulary-by-imagemap is cute, but too slow. Real-life examples, too:

The printer ate the paper.
La presilo mangxis la paperon.


Eurolang (EL) is yet another attempt at an artificial language. The author of EL, Philip Hunt (, aims for an interesting definition of ``success'': ``The design goal of EL is to make it as easy to read as possible for someone still learning the language who doesn't know much vocabulary, but does know its grammar (in particular it's rules for word formation). I hope to design EL such that, after having studied it for one day (this might have to be extended to 1 weekend), a reasonably well- educated European should be able to read it without too much recourse to a dictionary. '' Sample text with translation:

Eurolang est actifacta lang, qui me creatab est comuna 2a lang per la Europa Unized (EU). On basab its word-list super England-lang, France-lang, Italian-lang, Espanyan-lang et Latin. Me intend, ka lernation et usation it est facila.

Eurolang is a constructed language which I designed to be a common second language for the European Union (EU). Its vocabulary is based on English, French, Italian, Spanish and Latin. It is intended to be easy to learn and use.

Language Home Sites

(09.09.95) Haskell enters its third version! Haskell 1.3 is described at this site. Plain text is here.
(09.11.95) New SISAL tutorial.

UFO (United Functions and Objects) comes from Manchester University. The ftp site is In directory /pub/TR you will find: - an overview of the language, and - a description of our Uflow computational model.

Alternatively, there's one of these new-fangled URL thingies: for UMCS tech reports in general.

Both the language and the model have been substantially revised since these where written, so use them to get the flavour of what we're doing but don't rely on the details. There will be a release of up-to-date documentation and software in April. There's also a less out-of-date paper in LNCS 742 (proceedings of the 1st JSSST International Symposium on Object Technologies for Advanced Software).

I guess I should also warn you that UFO is not a pure functional language (by any of the definitions of pure I've seen here) although a statically identified subset of it is. We handle explicit state in an actor-like style. Sorry, no monads :-)

Meanwhile, as the result of being feverish and unable to sleep (a cold) I seem to converted that *^#^$texinfo copy into HTML and my own MATHS language. You can browse it using mosaic/lynx/netscape pointed at or you could ftp the MATH form (About 1500 lines...)
Congratulations to CMU for their excellent job of putting Guy Steele's Common Lisp, the Language, 2nd Edition on-line in WWW html format!

If you haven't tried it, you should. It's very nice. URL =

(Now if CMU and/or the internet would be less loaded...)

Henry Baker

There exists a SUN WWW server, from which you can reach, amongst other things, The SELF language project. Most interesting language, this. Interesting concepts, totally minimized. Could develop be the "scheme of the OO world". It is curious that there is no newsgroup to it yet. There was once a whole issue of "lisp and symbolic programming" (you know, the silvery-blue journal. Not the silvery-yellow one, thats "New Generation Computing", which is mostly about Prolog) is about Self, one or two years ago.
(09.07.95) The Association of Lisp Users
Dylan manuals
OPAL homepage
Erlang home page. (18.10.95) NEW erlang home page
I've seen the draft of the ANSI Ada language spec online already. Here is the URL:

The annotation attached reads:

This is a hypertext version of the proposed ANSI/ISO Standard (ISO/IEC CD 8652): Programming Language Ada, Language and Standard Libraries (Draft version 4.0). This entry point is the table of contents, with three "zoom levels." *** Version 5.0 of RM9X was released in June 1994 by the MRT; it is (still) undergoing transmogrification to hypertext. (The format changed drastically from version 4.0.) When transmogrified, the hypertext of version 5.0 will be packaged and made available by anonymous FTP, for easy, efficient offline browsing. Stay tuned. (No promise can be made as to date of availability; maybe before TRI-Ada'94. Here's hoping.) ***

Larry Weiss,


I know about the sites below, many of which will include papers

Dept. of Computer Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, AUSTRALIA
tel: 61 3 905 5205       fax: 61 3 905 5146       email:


%T Glasgow University
%D 1993
%K Glasgow, university, Scotland, UK, Europe,
   Computer Science, CS, CSci, computing,
      Functional Programming language, FP, Haskell, Gofer,  journal, jrnl, JFP,
   www, site, page, information, HREF, URL, FTP
%X DCS Glasgow
   Glasgow FP

%T Imperial College, London University
%D 1994
%K Imperial, college, university, IC, London, England, UK, Europe,
   Department of Computing, DOC, CS, CSci, computer science,
      functional programming, FP, logic, LP, Hope, Hope+, language, archive,
   www, site, page, information, HREF, URL, http
%X Dept. Computing, Imperial home
   SunSITE N. Europe Archive
      Hope by Ross Paterson
      There is even a html Form to run Hope.

%T Chalmers University of Technology - University of Gothenburg.
%D 1994
%K Goteborg, Chalmers, university, Sweden, SE, Europe,
   Computer Science, CS, CSci, computing,
      Functional Programming, language, FP, Lazy ML, LML, Haskell,
   www, site, page, information, HREF, URL
%X Chalmers home
   Goteborg home
      CSci Chalmers

%T University of Geneva
%D 1994
%K Geneva, university, Switzerland, Swiss, ch, Europe,
   Centre Universitaire d' Informatique, CUI, unige, computing,
      programming language, PL, languages, list,
   www, site, page, information, HREF, URL
%X CUI home
      see the programming-language list (huge):
      language list

%T University of Arizona
%D 1994
%K Arizona, university, USA,
   Computer Science, CS, CSci, computing,
      Icon, SR, string, symbolic, programming language,
   www, site, page, information, HREF, URL, http, FTP
%X Arizona home
   Comp. Sci. Arizona home
      see Icon and Snobol in the FTP area

%T Brigham Young University
%D 1994
%K Brigham Young, university, BYU, Utah, USA,
   Computer Science, CS, CSci, computing,
      course, lecture, notes, courseware, online,
         P. Windley, Concepts of Programming Languages, Paradigms,
   www, site, page, information, HREF, URL, http
%X CS BYU home
      see the Dept resources, online class information:
      Online course information

%T Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University
%D 1994
%K Carnegie Mellon University, CMU, USA,
   CSci, Computer Science, computing,
      programming language research, languages,
      Artificial Intelligence, AI, machine learning, repository, archive,
   Statistics, stats, StatLib, inductive inference,
   www, site, page, information, HREF, URL, http, FTP
%X CMU home
   CS CMU home
      Anonymous ftp: []   cd /user/ai
      CSci ftp
      CMU Programming Language Research
      CMU A.I. Repository
   StatLib Index

%T University of Washington, Seattle
%D 1994
%K Washington, university, Seattle, USA,
   Computer Science and Engineering, CS, CSci, computing,
      Weird Programming Language, Languages, Cecil,
   Genetics, Joe Felsenstein,
      MolBio, bio, biol, evolution, transition, transversion,
      PHYLIP, software, bibliography of population genetics, bionet,
   www, site, information, HREF, URL, FTP
%X Sleepless in Seattle:
   CSci Washington home
      Weird Programming Languages
   Evoln Genetics FTP
      IP No. see pub/...

%T Yale University
%D 1994
%K Yale, university, USA,
   Computer Science, CS, CSci, computing,
      functional programming, FP, Haskell, hbc, Gofer, implementation,
      Linda, parallel, concurrent, language,
   www, site, page, information, HREF, URL, http, FTP
%X CSci Yale
   FP Yale
   email:          (8/'94)

%A L. Allison
%T Functional Programming
%D 1994
%K functional, FP, programming, language, computer, computing, www, HREF, http
%X Functional Programming page

%A J. Farrell
%T Functional Programming
%D 1994
%K functional, FP, programming, language, computer, computing, www, HREF, http
%X JF's FP page

%T Programming Language Design and Implementation
%K PLDI95 PLDI 95 1995, languages, computer science, CSci, computing,
   conf, CFP, conference, www, HREF, http
%X PLDI 95
   via: email:  Barbara Ryder (11/'94)

%T Principles of Programming Languages
%K POPL95 POPL 95 1995, language, computer, computing, science, CSci,
   conf, CFP, conference, www, HREF, http
%X POPL 95
   via: email:  Barbara Ryder (11/'94)

%A K. E. Iverson
%T A Programming Language
%I Wiley
%D 1962
%K APL, text book, applicative, operator, operators, one liner one-liner
   programming language definition, PLD,
   www, HREF, FTP
   see also `J'.

%A J. Armstrong
%A R. Virding
%A M. Williams
%T Concurrent Programming in Erlang.
%I Prentice-Hall
%D 1993
%K Erlang, text, book, parallel, concurrent, asynchronous message passing,
   functional, applicative, FP, programming language definition, PLD,
   www, HREF, FTP
%X isbn: 0-13-285792-8
   Erlang info

%A R. E. Griswold
%A M. T. Griswold
%T The Icon Programming Language.
%I Prentice-Hall
%D 1990
%K Icon, programming language definition, PLD, text book, goal oriented,
   coroutine coexpression generator, SL5,
   www, HREF, FTP
%X 2nd edn published 1990
   see books and articles on Icon and SL5

%A N. Wirth
%T The Programming Language Oberon.
%V 18
%N 7
%P 671-690
%D 1988
%K Oberon, programming language definition, PLD, operating system,
   www, HREF, FTP
%X ftp:
   see book by Wirth and Gutknecht '92
   via: the programming language list

%A R. Griswold
%A J. Poage
%A I. Polonsky
%T The Snobol 4 Programming Language.
%I Prentice-Hall
%D 1971
%K Snobol, text book snobol4 pattern string match, processing,
   programming language definition, PLD,
   www, HREF, FTP
%X see also SL5 and Icon (Griswold)

In article <> Philip Romanov <>

> I am interested in what's new in monads?
> Can suggest any papers/proceedings?

Paul Hudak, Mark Jones and I have written a paper titled:

"Monad Transformers and Modular Interpreters"

It discusses how ideas in monads are used to construct programming
language interpreters out of modular components. We showed that an
interpreter for a language with many features can be composed from
building blocks, each implementing a specific feature.

The paper is going to appear in POPL'95, and is also available online:

through Paul Hudak's WWW home page:

by anonymous ftp from

Our work is built upon several previous results in constructing modular
interpreters using monads:

Mark Jones and Luc Duponcheel. Composing monads. Yale Research Report
YALEU/DCS/RR-104, December 1993.

Guy L. Steele Jr. Building interpreters by composing monads. in POPL'94
January, 1994

David Espinosa. Semantic Lego. Unpublished manuscript. December, 1993.
ftp from : pub/users/dae (also contains code and
papers describing his more recent work)

Best regards,
Sheng Liang

(10.07.95) Keith Ivey's English Usage Page
(03.04.95) The Programming Language Critiques Page has been updated. Still web-unfriendly, i.e. mostly postscript files.
The programming language research Web pages previously located at:

have moved.  Our Web server will soon cease to support port 8001, and
a symlink can now be used to shorten the URL.

The following URL is now preferred:

Simply omitting the port number will also work:

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